Ari Z. Zivotofsky & Yosef N. Zivotofsky
When it was built, the synagogue
was probably the pride of the not-insignificant local Jewish community. The
best artisans were brought in to design a magnificent mosaic, and in order to
help defray the costs a separate mosaic was placed near the entrance that lists
the donors. It has now been about 1500 years since those benefactors made their
contributions, but Jews are still drawn to the site. It is located in the
Palestinian controlled city of Jericho
and is today known as the Shalom Al Yisrael Synagogue after an inscription at
the center of its well-preserved 10 x 13 meter mosaic.
Accessing the site today is unfortunately
politically complicated, but thanks to the efforts of one devoted woman, Erna
Covos, we were fortunate to be able to visit and pray there this past Chanukah.
After a decades long absence, it was a profoundly emotional experience for me to
visit both Jericho
and its most well known synagogue.
The shul was probably used for
hundred of years during the 6th and 7th centuries, and
then the Yericho Jewish community disappeared and the shul was forgotten. The
world’s eyes and in particular those of the Jews turned again to Zion in the 19th
century and in 1936 this shul was re-discovered by DC Baramki of the
Antiquities Authority. Jews were denied access to it from 1948 until 1967, when
liberated the area and Jews returned to the site. In an unusual twist, for the
first years following its liberation, visitors, including Jewish worshippers,
were charged admission by a clever Arab who built his house atop the
archeological site. Finally, in 1986 the National Parks Authority purchased (!)
the building and allowed free access which led to regular prayers and
eventually the sprouting of a small yeshiva at the site.
Then in1994 as part of the Oslo
Peace Accords, Jericho became the first city in
Judea and Samaria
to be handed over to Palestinian Authority control. Owing to the sanctity of
the city and the uniqueness of the synagogue site, then Chief Rabbi Lau and MK
Chanan Porat persuaded PM Rabin to negotiate a special status for the synagogue,
and unhindered Jewish access and prayer continued. That all came to an
explosive halt with the igniting of the Oslo War on September 27, 2000. Shortly
thereafter Jews were barred from Jericho,
and then on the night of October 12, 2000, the synagogue was vandalized by
Palestinians who torched and destroyed most of the building, burned holy books
and relics, and damaged the mosaic. For over 8 years no Jew was permitted to
set foot in the Shalom al Yisrael synagogue. Then, on February 25, 2009, a
joint patrol of Israeli and Palestinian soldiers escorted a high ranking
delegation of rabbis and military officials to inspect the site. In anticipation
of the visit the PA painted and cleaned the site. Although there were no
official plans to allow continued visits, that visit broke the ice and now
escorted visits are permitted approximately
once per month, thanks to Erna.
Having heard about the
possibility of praying in the ancient Jericho
synagogue, I contacted Erna about arranging a family trip for our son’s pre-Bar-Mitzva
first hanachat teffilin experience. Unfortunately the army cancelled the trip
that month and another year would pass before we were able to make the
pilgrimage this past Chanukah. The bus begins its journey at 6:30 am from
Binyanei haUma in Jerusalem.
We, three generations of Zivotofsky men, boarded the almost empty bus and were
surprised to find only a handful of other passengers, mostly young charedi type
yeshiva boys. We picked up a few more yeshiva boys at the French Hill junction
and then headed out towards the Dead Sea. We
were going to be circling around and entering
Jericho from the north, but we first had to
pass the southern entrance. As we did, we saw the one modern, tall building,
the casino that many remember. The building is today the five-star Inter
Continental Jericho that was built at a cost of $300 million and opened in
September 1998, essentially as a hotel built around a casino. Before the
renewed Palestinian violence in late 2000, the casino serviced approximately
6,000 patrons a day, almost all Israelis. The hotel and casino shut down in
October 2000 and just the hotel reopened in 2005 with the 181 rooms costing
about $70 a night.
After passing the southern
entrance of Jericho
(Yericho) we continued until route 90, where we turned north for a few
kilometers and then stopped at the entrance to Beit Hogla, where Erna lives. It
is she who, coordinating with Zahal, for the past year or so has been arranging
the Jewish visits approximately once a month, usually on Rosh Chodesh. From
there we continued around to the north of Yericho. Our last stop before picking
up military escorts was the small town of Mevo'ot
Yericho which was founded in 1999 as a station for
agricultural experiments known as Havat HaIklum and became a farm community in
It is home to 24 families, who grow lemons, dates, figs, grapes, sweet
potatoes, passion fruit, and other crops and are also the guardians of the
Torah Scroll that used to be housed in the Shalom al Yisrael synagogue before
2000 They are also the final
outpost before the entrance to Jericho.
We picked up the Torah and some additional people for the bus. These included a
large group from the Shilo Hesder Yeshiva and a
US reporter. At this point our bus
was full to capacity.
We then met our tzahal escort and
crossed into PA territory where we were able to see in the distance to our
right an additional shul in the area, the Na'aran synagogue, but were not permitted
to visit. It was discovered in 1918 after the Ottoman Turks fired a shell at a
British army unit camped at the site and it was dated to the Byzantine period,
i.e. 5th or 6th century CE. There is a mosaic which is
even larger than the one in Shalom al Yisrael and has several sections including
a large wheel of the Zodiac, the story of Daniel in the lion’s den, and
drawings of utensils from the Temple.
In recent years the area has been effectively abandoned by the State and the
mosaic is deteriorating, although there are groups of youth who visit regularly.
The modern Israeli settlement of Niran is named after the ancient city of that
name, although it is located several kilometers to the north. It was
established in 1971 as a Nahal settlement, was converted to a civilian kibbutz
in 1977 and as of 2006 had a population of 52. It has an industrial area which
includes factories for producing stretch films and other plastic films.
Information about Na’aran and many of the other sites were explained to us by
Erna during the bus trip into and out of Jericho.
The Naaran synagogue - Photo: Ela Koblenz
There is possibly an even older
shul in the Jericho
area, but we were not successful in visiting it either on that day. It was
discovered in 1998 and is today known as the Wadi Qelt Synagogue or the Jericho
Synagogue. If the archeological remains are indeed a shul, as the lead
archeologist at the site, the recently deceased Ehud Netzer, asserts, this is
the oldest shul in the world. It was found as part of the Maccabean Jericho
royal winter palaces complex just west of Jericho,
and is dated to the first century BCE, about 50 years older than the next
oldest shul, found in Gamla in the Golan Heights. The remains suggest a simple, small
structure unlike the large, artistic Shalom al Yisrael synagogue. Netzer claims
to have identified within the small area the main hall, a niche for the Torahs,
a mikveh, and a dining hall. Others archeologists are not convinced that it is
indeed a synagogue. Also unlike Shalom al Yisael, It was short-lived, being
destroyed together with the palace in an earthquake in 31 BCE.
One of the first things that one
notices upon entering Yericho is the cable car. It seems out of place in the
otherwise sleepy, ancient town and did not exist the last time I was in the
city. The cable car links Tel Jericho to the Mount of Temptation, site of a 19th
century Greek-Orthodox monastery still occupied by 6 monks. Built as a result
of post-Oslo investments at a cost $12 million the 12 car system opened in
September 1999 and offers a five minute ride along its 1330 meter length.
We made our way to the synagogue
at which point the IDF entered the shul, made sure it was safe and then formed
an armed inner perimeter around the building. The PA soldiers, looking
significantly more relaxed, formed an armed outer perimeter. We disembarked and
made our way into the PA built structure that stands atop the ancient mosaic.
After a short hiatus in which we had a chance to take in our surroundings, a
joyous Chanukah/Rosh Chodesh prayer service led by the Shilo students commenced.
It was truly an inspirational event in which Hallel was recited to song and
dance, and Yosef received an aliyah to the Torah.
The prayer services were followed
by a short history lesson in the now unused second story Beit midrash (study
hall), which included interesting details about the founding of Petach Tikva.
Petach Tikva was founded in 1878 by religious settlers from Europe as the first
modern Jewish agricultural settlement in the Land of Israel.
The original intent was to establish the settlement in the
Jericho area, and the group originally
purchased land in that area. The name was chosen based on the verse (Hosea
2:17) "And I will give her vineyards from thence, and the Valley of Achor
[an area near Jericho] for an opening of hope [Petach Tikva], and she shall
sing there, as in the days of her youth, and as in the day when she came up out
of the land of Egypt." However, the Turkish Sultan cancelled the purchase
and forbade them from settling there. They were eventually permitted to
purchase swamp lands near the source of the Yarkon River,
the current location of the city, but the name Petah Tikva was retained.
See a movie of the prayer service - best seen in "full-screen" mode.
The second half of the movie contains a Torah talk in Hebrew. What follows explains some of the ideas of the Torah talk, and also goes more into depth with regard Jericho's Jewish and historical contexts:
It is not only the synagogue, but the city as well that has special
significance and motivated us in wanting to visit, or more accurately, make a
pilgrimage. Jericho is one of the oldest and
lowest (244 meter below sea level) cities in the world, and the Jewish history
dates all the way back to the famous Biblical story of its miraculous capture
by Joshua. In response to a Divine command,
the Israelites encircled the city once a day for six days and seven times on
the seventh day, in a procession that was led by seven priests with seven ram's
horns and the Holy Ark. After the final encirclement on the seventh day, they
blew trumpets and the people issued a great shout; the city's wall sank and the
Israelites entered the city, burned and destroyed it and its contents, and
killed its inhabitants (Joshua 6:1-21).
Also known as as "Ir haTemarim"
- city of palm-trees, Yericho is blessed with the abundant waters of the Jordan River a
mere 6 kilometers to the east and its own underground springs that feed its
famous oasis. The result is a lush green patch in the midst of an otherwise
barren desert. Its natural resources, beauty, and climate made it a favorite for
rulers throughout history, and its strategic location along trade routes and desirable
location commanding a fjord across the Jordan River,
led to continuous competition for its control.
A reading of the conquest of
Yericho in Tanach presents a puzzle: Immediately following the
"battle" for Jericho, Joshua issued two proclamations, the second of
which is a curse upon any person who would rebuilt the city: "And Joshua
charged the people with an oath at that time, saying: 'Cursed be the man before
the Lord, who rises up and builds this city, Jericho; with the loss of his
first-born shall he lay the foundation, and with his youngest son shall he set
up the gates of it'" (Joshua 6:26). This is a most enigmatic and
unexpected conclusion to the prolonged description of the preparations for this
military conquest of the first city in the land where the Jews are destined to live.
Joshua's curse on rebuilding Jericho was eventually fulfilled when, some 500
years later, Hiel rebuilt Jericho and all of his children died (I Kings 16:34),
starting with Abiram his first-born and concluding with his youngest son Segib.
The motive and parameters behind this curse have been the subject of much
discussion, but however it is understood, the puzzle is clear: Was there not a
Jewish presence in the city throughout the biblical and Talmudic periods, and
what were the Jews doing there when they built the magnificent synagogue that
The Talmud (Sanhedrin 113a) codifies
the curse and even seems to have expanded it by stating that the prohibition
includes "building Jericho, even if it is
called by another name, or building any other city and calling it Jericho.” This second
half led me to ask then chief rabbi Shlomo Goren in 1981 about the propriety of
the name "Mitzpeh Yeriho" that was being used for a new town being
built overlooking the Jordan
Valley. He responded that
it was not a problem because Jericho
was not to be the name of the city but merely a geographical reference as part
of a larger name.
Various rationales are offered
for the absence of the building prohibition from all the religious legal codes such
as Maimonides’. The 19th
century Rabbi Chaim Berlin explained that once
rebuilt there is no longer a prohibition to live there. Similar
explanations were given by Rabbi Meir Simcha haKohen of Dvinsk and Rabbi
Eliezar Waldenberg. Rabbi Sternbuch said that only building a complete city is
prohibited. Others suggest that only an individual may not built the city, but
the Jewish community may.
Taking note of the significance
of Yericho in Jewish national tradition as evidenced in the Joshua story, the
miracles of Elisha, the continuous Jewish presence there for millennium, and
the special synagogues, the Talmudic sages saw fit to highlight the special
holiness to the city its intimate link to Jerusalem.
Although the city lies 30 miles east of and about 3600 feet lower than Jerusalem, many of the rituals taking place in the Temple in Jerusalem were
said to have been sensed in Jericho.
We are informed that the sounds of the flute, cymbals, magrefa, and shofar and
the Levites' daily song, were heard in Jericho.
In Jericho was also heard the voice of Gavinni,
sexton, as he roused the priests with his cry of: "Arise, priests, to your
service; Levites to your pulpits, and Israelites to your stands." And
after he finished, the sound of the opening of the great gate of the Temple was heard in Jericho.
Some say that even the voice of the high priest as he intoned the Divine Name
on Yom Kippur was heard in Jericho.
The link between the two cities was olfactory as well; the scent of the incense
burning in the Temple was not only perceptible,
but was all-pervasive in Jericho.
It is said that the goats in Jericho
would sneeze from the smell of the incense. In addition, the women of
>Jericho, even brides, had
no need for perfume, for the same reason.
Ra'avad explained that Jericho, just like all
"firsts," be they grain, fruits, shearings or male children, are
consecrated. Thus, Joshua consecrated the first section of the
Land of Israel he captured. And to emphasize
this point, G-d performs these daily miracles which produce a tangible link
between Jericho and
An amazing rabbinic teaching says
that when the Land of Israel was originally divided among the various
tribes, it had not yet been revealed where the
Temple would be constructed, and hence which
tribe would have to give up some of its land for that purpose. Since the site
of the Temple Mount in the second Temple period was 500 x 500 amot, a 500 x 500
amah area was set aside as part of the original allocation in the outskirts of
Jericho and would be given to the tribe in whose territory the Temple would
eventually be built, in exchange for the land they would give up for the Temple
site. It therefore turns out that the original land for the Bet haMikdash was
set aside not in Jerusalem but in Jericho!
I recall visiting Jericho years ago. The
first stop was the national park at the site of the tel where 23 strata have
been identified by archeologists, principally the British Kathleen Kenyon in
the 1950s. The site has yielded pottery and building samples spanning
millennia. There are ancient cemeteries which have provided human remains for
study, and also shed light on ancient burial practices including those of early
Jews. Documents and mikvaot (ritual baths) from the Biblical and Talmudic
period have been unearthed.
The tel is not the middle of the city because unlike pre-Roman settlers who constructed
their new cities on the ruins of previous cities,
after the Romans destroyed the city in the first century the Christian
Byzantines, to whom it was also holy, relocated in to its present location about
one mile east. Nearby is the Spring of Elisha, where Elisha the Prophet is said
to have sweetened the water (II Kings 2). This is the source of the water for
As in much of Israel, earthquakes
have played a role in the history of Yericho. For example, in 743, during the
Umayyad Period, Caliph Hisham Ibn Abd el-Malik built his winter palace there.
But just 4 years later a massive earthquake leveled the entire city and he did
not rebuild it, leaving it deserted for centuries. The last major earthquake in
Israel was on July 12, 1927
and its epicenter was right near Jericho.
Current estimates are that over 200 people died, mostly in Yericho.
The Jewish community seems to
have disappeared after the Roman destruction of the city, but a Jewish
community was reestablished in the city in the seventh century, possibly by
Jews fleeing from Muhammad. The Shalom al Yisrael synagogue, oriented towards Jerusalem and containing the
mosaic floor with the Jewish symbols of the time, i.e. menorah, shofar, and
lulav, is from that period. The Jewish presence dwindled in the early middle
ages, during which time the town was fought over by the Crusaders and Muslims.
was entirely burned by the Crusaders, the town was practically uninhabited
until the 19th century. The most recent destruction of
Jericho, or Al-Rihad as it is now called, was
in 1840 by Ibrahim Pasha in a punitive expedition against the Bedouins. At the
beginning of the last century only 40 to 50 Muslim families lived in Al-Rihad,
while by the 1940s the town has expanded to about 3000 residents. In 1967 the
Israeli census indicated a population of almost 7000, with another 2000 living
in the surrounding areas. Its current population is estimated at about 15,000.
On the day that we visited
Yericho we were not the only ones in the region. About 50 teenagers marched in
the region and visited the Herodian palaces without army permission or
coordination in a protest to demand that Jews be permitted to live in the
region. Many of them were members of the Garin Yericho, which advocates the
renewal of Jewish settlement in the city.
It is truly a special city. Much
credit goes to Erna for arranging these trips and it is important that Jericho not fall off of the Jewish and Israel radar
screen. Rabbi Eliezer Valdenberg, one of this generation's greatest sages and
known for his work, Tzitz Eliezer, wrote forty years ago: "There is no
prohibition from Joshua to weaken our efforts to do all we can to prevent this
important city from leaving our authority, ... All this [the many connections
between Jerusalem and Jericho] teaches us that Jericho should never again leave
our possession, just as, G-d willing, the holy city of Jerusalem will never
again leave our possession."
Photos: Yonathan Gormezano, movie: Erna Kovos